Explained | World’s Water Crisis | FULL EPISODE | Netflix

As soon as you open the tap, clean water flows out. As much as we like, whenever we like. easy to forget This endeavor was one of the most prominent conflicts in human history. Civilizations that used water flourished. Civilizations that failed… are extinct. Today, 7 out of 10 people on Earth They ensure that there is running water in their homes. Water flows from stalagmites into connected channels, Finally, through the service channels it reaches every house on the street. At least, that's what they think. Cape Town could become the first major country in the world They are running out of water. Cape Town in South Africa is now around the corner from Day Zero. It takes 92 days to turn off most of the water taps by force due to severe dehydration. Cape Town is the first major city in the world Plans to stop the water supply indefinitely. 4 million people will be cut off from running water. They will get water rations. They will have to line up at the city water stations to get it. And it's not just Cape Town. Sao Paulo, Melbourne, Jakarta and London Beijing, Istanbul, Tokyo, and Bangalore Barcelona and Mexico City They will all face "Day Zero" over the next few decades, However, their water consumption has changed drastically.

There are beliefs that water is available in abundant quantities Because it's available to everyone so you can open the tap, And that's a dire problem. In fact, in 2040 Most of the world will not have enough water to meet year-round demand. We are facing a crisis (Betsy Otto) Water Resources Analyst. We are at a real inflection point, unless we are careful, We may take advantage of our ability to regulate our consumption. But there is no substitute for water. We will all die in a few days without him. How did we build a world? Do we not have enough of its most valuable resources? As this crisis grows, What will the new world look like? Waterways built by people To liberate the earth from the tyranny of nature.

For some investors, what they see in this cup It is liquid gold. clean water. right Now. Water becomes a commodity. It takes on a new value, that people demand and hoard. Do we dare to underestimate the value of our water as we underestimate the air we breathe? Earth is a blue planet. No shortage of water. We own 326 million trillion gallons of water.

From time immemorial and forever. Water may freeze to ice or evaporate into the air, But it does not leave our planet. If we absorb all the water on Earth, it will be put into this ball. But 97 percent is salty and 2 percent is trapped in ice at the poles. So all of humanity depends on 1 percent of that water to survive. When people talk about their water being cut off, What do they mean rather? Is that very small percentage available to them? The answer depends entirely on where you live.

Kuwait is one of the poorest countries in terms of water quota per capita. And Canada, one of the richest countries in water, does not have only double or 10 times even. Rather, it owns 10,000 times "Kuwait". But the location of the water is also important. That 1 percent of the Earth's water that we all depend on, Most of it is underground and access is very difficult and expensive. Therefore, humans settled mostly near surface waters, such as rivers and lakes. About 90 percent of the world's population It lives less than 10 km from a fresh water source. Hundreds of years ago, when the Aztec tribes settled in what is now "Mexico", They saw a huge lake. These are the last ruins of the canals they dug. City (Mexico), 1560. A soldier marveled at the Aztec city jutting out of the water The city that seemed to be an enchanted vision. But then the Spaniards began to drain the lake, Over the course of a few centuries that place was filled with people. Like most places, the flat waters in Mexico.

It was considered a general resource, such as development. Since 1950, the population of Mexico City has exploded. Now it is inhabited by 22 million people. I would say that some of the most serious threats facing Mexico City… … related to water. Mexico City gets more rain than London, which is famous for its rain. But the lakes that used to collect that water have dried up long ago, So the city overflows with water. But they still have to supply most of their water From places other than Mexico. or supplied from underground. We have greatly improved the extraction of groundwater.

But there is a price. These reservoirs of water, called aquifers, have accumulated over the course of two thousand years, It takes two thousand years to fill up again. Groundwater is kind of like a savings account, There is nothing wrong with it being withdrawn from it sometimes, especially if you are affected by a drought. But that's not what Mexico City does. About 50 percent of our water supply is extracted from the local water carrier. Which means we will likely lose half of our water resources Between the next 30 and 50 years. Extracting that groundwater has another disadvantage. compacts the soil. Mexico City is literally drowning. In some places, it is sinking about 22.8 centimeters per year. NASA satellite data shows groundwater holdings in northern India decreasing by 29 trillion gallons in one decade.

Simply put, on Earth, more people consume more water. This century, water consumption has increased 7-fold. And the rain and snow on which we rely to water our crops and fill our lakes and rivers They became unreliable. Climate change is making available water even weirder and more erratic. See regions around the world You go through much longer dry periods. But the problem is not only that there are more people on the ground who use water, The problem is the ways we use water.

Humans need to drink about 3.7 liters of water per day. Washing teeth and hands consumes about 3.7 liters. 11.3 liters were consumed. But drinking, washing and flushing the toilet Each person on Earth accounts for only 8 percent of our annual fresh water consumption. Most of the water is attributed to agriculture and industry, The food and the goods we consume. A bottle of Coca-Cola, for example. 98 percent of the water in that bottle Not what you see in that bottle. In fact, 98 percent of the water is buried in the components that have been planted To make that Coca-Cola bottle. 74 liters of water goes into every beer cup. coffee cup? 130 liters. Each of your T-shirts is 2,500 liters. But nothing has buried water like meat. Alfalfa is a common ingredient in livestock feed. And cultivation per kilogram consumes 510 liters of water. The average cow consumes about 12 kilograms of alfalfa every day. dividing the number, A mere 113 grams of hamburger requires 1,650 liters of water to produce. Meat consumption per person Diets with higher calories and more meat. But not everyone can eat like Americans. In fact, there is not enough water in the world.

Water is not bound by one of the basic rules of capitalism. Farmers hardly pay for it. So the real price of water is not added to the price of the burger. Therefore, fast food restaurants can provide meals for special offers. "How can it be 99 cents?" For two dollars and 99 cents. You heard me. In most parts of the world, Water is treated and valued as if we would always have enough of it. As a result, we overuse them in ridiculous ways. Arid Southern California uses more than 7.5 trillion liters of water annually to grow alfalfa, which is water from the Colorado River, miles away.

The price they pay for it doesn't even match the cost of delivery. Just a small fraction of the water consumed by the wine industry in South Africa. Cape Town faucets will suffice. India and China grow their most water-intensive crops in some of their driest regions. But as water gets scarcer, that may change. Goldman Sachs predicted that the water It will be the oil of the 21st century. Private investment destinations, such as investment funds, are starting to buy water, They raise fears that they are exploiting scarcity for profit. How does a man plan to make billions by selling the waters of the Mojave desert? Because it was. from this moment, My organization owns over 60 percent of Bolivia's water resources. This contract states that your new government… You will contract with us as a utility provider. But raising the price of water may have benefits.

The benefit of estimating water as we should and send a price signal, is that we will not grow alfalfa in the desert. Remember that point. It will be important later. We would not grow unreasonable crops in very barren places. Because it makes no sense from an economic point of view. And 95 percent of the world's irrigated agricultural land She probably wouldn't have used the worst and least efficient irrigation methods… Flood the fields with water. If water had a higher price, The government may decide to reform the water infrastructure It's worth the money. We are not investing the required financial resources To perform discreet system maintenance. One critical consequence of this is that we have 42 percent leaks in the water network. Mexico City, facing an existential water crisis, She loses about half of her drinking water to leaky pipes. We underestimate water, We dump two million tons of sewage and agricultural and industrial waste in it every day. No sense of worth Water, which is a very precious resource. But when the water runs out, we know what the real price of water is.

in 2017, Mexicali has entered into a contract with Constellation Brands, brewers "Modello" and "Krona", to build a winery. It was the biggest investment the region had seen in years. Creating 750 permanent jobs. In return, the fermenter was getting a lot of water. But Mexicali does not have plenty of water. Its primary water source is the Colorado River. It begins in Colorado with the United States. Fueled by the melting snow in the Rocky Mountains, Warmer temperatures in recent years mean that there is less snow, Which means that the river has been short. Water level in 1983. The river flows south, passing a few states of America on its way, Like Denver and Salt Lake City. Las Vegas, Phoenix, and Los Angeles. And about 6 million acres of agricultural land. until the Colorado River reaches Mexicali, It seems so. We haven't had enough water for a long time. If the fermenter has stabilized and they start producing a lot, after a few years We will run out of ground water.

Farmers are the most affected by it. They need 20 million square meters per year. If we compare that to cities like Ensenada, Which needs 9 million cubic meters, it is more than double. More than twice the city. As water becomes scarce, access to it becomes competitive. with winners and losers, Sometimes by government choice. In July 2018, The Federal Government of Mexico issued a decree Facilitates the likes of "Constellation Brands" of companies To extract surface water from all parts of the country. We see that this is theft. It is also a warning to the whole world, not just to Mexicans. We know that many parts of the world You fight against these customization projects Which makes a lot of money for companies.

In January 2018, The protesters physically tried to stop the building fermented channel. The whole group of police came from that road in the lead. They came here with body armor, in a row. It is the woman in the video armed with a pipe. But we have to defend our water. Because it is an important fluid. It is the most precious thing we have now. Water scarcity is causing mounting violence around the world. My personal experiences with this crisis It was in northeastern Nigeria. As we've seen, over the years, Lake Chad has dried up. With it, livelihoods dried up. And that tension erupted An eruption that the government could not control.

Water scarcity is at the core of the ongoing conflict in Darfur. which has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives since 2003. Some analysts say that the civil war in "Syria" Mostly caused by a severe drought in 2006. As tension rises over fresh water, Governments are considering an idea that was previously unattainable. Make more fresh water. Ocean desalination has doubled over the past decade But the quantity we make annually It's still less than 1 percent of the water we use. We are waiting for the completion of the Holy Grail, which deals with the high costs required by desalination, which is the taking of ocean water or brackish water Which contains many salts, from the ground, And we treat it to comply with drinking water standards. It takes a lot of money and effort now. It would make more sense if water were more expensive. But that means that everything that contains water will become more expensive.

The price of consumer goods will skyrocket. Some industries may deteriorate. Companies like Constellation Brands might make different decisions About the places where they do business. Because you have to remember… The benefit of estimating water as we should and send a price signal, is that we will not grow alfalfa in the desert. Cultivation of animal feed in the desert. That's the Mina family's profession. And if the water suddenly becomes like petroleum, They also became unemployed. The issue is that water is not like oil.

Or any other commodity on the ground as well. Because without water, we die. In 2010, the United Nations adopted the availability of water and sanitation as a human right. And therein lies the challenge in the water crisis. How are you supposed to value an invaluable resource While making sure it is available to everyone? When the price of water is raised, to repair pipes or to urge them to conserve them, The poor are more affected by this. Sydney Water imposes a 15 percent increase over 4 years. It puts a heavier strain on the family budget. This desire to conserve water and rationalize its consumption, It has now become a burden for the poor. Living on a fixed salary, I can't afford any of this. Perhaps the issue is that we do not treat all forms of water equally. We know that we have a certain percentage of water, Approximately 60 liters per day per person. This is related to human rights issues. But on top of that, people have to pay for the water.

in 2017, Philadelphia has begun experimenting with linking water prices to income. We have to price it in a way It protects basic human rights. The fact that we all need water makes this crisis especially difficult. But it can also inspire people to act in special ways to resolve a crisis. "Day Zero" in Cape Town was scheduled for March 18. But people started saving. Clearly, water restrictions are having an effect. Day Zero has been postponed by a month. Cape Town announced that it was postponing "Day Zero" until July 9. The authorities expect "day zero," as it is called, To come at the end of August instead of July. Now, that has since been postponed to next year, Thanks to the extraordinary efforts made by the residents and the authorities. Cape Town's daily water consumption. Less than half of what it was 4 years ago, The countdown to "Day Zero" has been suspended indefinitely. No real solutions were implemented until they started talking about "Day Zero". It caught people's attention.

it was amazing, From the time the city started talking about "Day Zero" And a month later, how much people are saving on water. And that shows what we can achieve. But Cape Town got lucky, too. It rained. The solution is to realize the importance of water before it runs out. And remember, our destinies depend on what flows from our taps. Mexico City is built within a lake. But today, our relationship with water is very weak. It is very important to revive our historical awareness of water. There are many things one can do to conserve water. But also to realize that water is valuable. Translation of "Arsani Khalaf".

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