Translator: Anwar Dafa-Alla. Validated: Mahmoud Aghiorly I have to start with a revelation A little more than twenty years ago I “ve done something” I sadnes. Something I’m not proud of, Something I care no one would ever know. But now I feel compelled to divulge it.( Laughter) In the late eighties And in a moment of youthful recklessness She enrolled statute clas.( Laughter) Now, Advocacy/ Law in America is a professional degree. You required to obtain an associate degree and then go to law school. And when I got into law school, I didn’t do well. To be nice, I didn’t do well. In happening, I graduated with the members of my rule academy class That built 90 percent of it is feasible.( Laughter) Thank. I “ve never” practiced constitution in my life. The happening is that he did not give permission.( Laughter) But today, contrary to what I tell myself, And contrary to my wife’s advice, I want to dust off some of those legal sciences, Or what’s left of it. I don’t want to tell you a floor. I want to prove a case. I want to present a strong case, based on evidence, And if I dare a case characterized by the spirit of attorney, Let’s rethink how we extend our business. So, women and men of the jury, take a look at next. This is known as the candle puzzle. Some of you may know this experience. Made in 1945 It was started by a psychologist referred Karl Dunker. Karl Dunker created this venture Which was used in a group of experiments in the social sciences of behavior. Here’s how it directs. Suppose I am the one doing the venture. I bring you into a room and give you a candle And some sticky putty and some matches. Then I say to you, “What you have to do The candle is fixed to the wall So that the wax does not drip onto the table. What are you going to go about do? Parcels of beings start by trying to threw putty on the wall. It will not work. There is a person, and I witnessed some They become the movement here. Some beings have a great idea where They ignite a parallel, defrosted the tip of the candle, and then try to stick it to the wall. An excellent theme, but it doesn’t work. Finally, after five or ten minutes, Most parties discover the answer, Which you can see here. The key to defeat what’s called functional persistence. You look at the box and you see it simply as a crate for the adhesive adhesive. But she might have another job, It is a platform for a candle. Here’s the whodunit of the candle. I want to tell you about an experiment now Include the candle puzzle, Done by a scientist reputation Sam Glucksburg, He is currently at Princeton University in the United State. This experimentation demonstrates the influence of motivating. Here’s what he did.Gather all participants “I’m going to count the time for you, ” he said. “How fast can you solve the puzzle? ” He told us to one of them: I’ll calculate the time for you to set a standard, Average time is usually necessary Until someone solves such a problem. And to the other group he leaved wages. He said: “If you are among the twenty-five percent of the most wonderful terms out You will get five dollars. If you were the fastest participant in the experiment today You will get twenty dollars.” This was several years ago, we adjusted for inflation. A reasonable amount for a few minutes of effort. It is a good motivator. Question: How much make you go This group solve the riddle? Answer: They took approx Three and a half “minutes “. Three and a half minutes longer. It determines no impression now, does it? I make, I’m an American, I believe in the free market. But it shouldn’t work like that, right?( Laughter) If you want people to do better, You reward them, right? Bonuses , commissions or a reality program of their own. Motivate them, that’s how it use. But this is not the case now. We have a braced catalyst To sharp thinking and accelerate creativity. But it does the exact opposite. It dulls thinking and obstructs ability. What is interesting about this experience is that it is not an anomaly. It has been repeated over and over After formerly, and for forty years. Those emergency provokes, If you do this you will get such-and-such It operates under some states. But in many chores it either does not work Or, more frequently, it hurts. This is one of the most important breakthroughs In sociology. And likewise, the most discounted. I devoted the last two years researching a discipline Human stimulation. Specific, in the driving forces of external stimulant And intrinsic stimulation. And I’m telling you, it’s not even close. If you look at science, you will find a negation Between what the science says and what happens at work. The danger here is that our proletariat control structure – Think about the determined of hypothesis and etiquettes on which our work is built. How do we cause beings and how do we apply our human resources – It is built altogether around external stimulu. Around carrots and remains. And that’s okay, in fact, for many of members of the mission of the 20th century. But for members of the mission of the 21 st century, This is a reward and beating mechanical programme It does not work, it often does not work, and it often hurts as well. Let me prove you what I make. So Glucksburg did another venture similar to this He represented the experience in a slightly different way. As shown here above. Okay? Fix the candle to the wall so that the candle does not drip onto the table. The same instructions. You are here: We’re reckon the time to measure the rate. And you are there: We’re giving you a catalyst. What happened this time? This time, different groups motivated By winning a triumph win. Why? Because when we take out the sticky adhesive out of the box It goes easy and straightforward, right?( Laughter) So the reinforces labour For this type of mission, There is a simple prepared of rules and a clear goal It is accessed. Compensations by nature Focuses thinking and defines the area of focus Therefore, it succeeds in many cases. So for missions like this, Specific focus, where you see the target in front of you, And it runs straight-from-the-shoulder towards it It drives effectively. But in the case of the true candle mystery, You don’t want to look like this. The answer is not there.The mixture is in the boundary. You need to look around. That compensation actually characterizes focus Our capabilities are restricted. Let me tell you why this is so important. In western Europe, And in much of Asia, And in North America and Australia, Office employees do less manipulate from this kind, And more undertaking than the other kind. That lawful number of the left brain: Such as some types of accounting and some types of financial analysis, And some each type of electronic program, It became easy to delegate him It is easy to run automatically Programs can do it faster. Service providers can do it around the world at a lower cost. So what actually matters are the functions of the right brain: Knowledge that require abstractions and innovation. Think about your work. Think about your work. Is it the problems you are facing or even their own problems That we were talking about here, Is this kind of problem, does she have clear regulations, A solo mixture? No. The statutes are bewildering. And the solution, if it exists at all, is Sudden and not clear. Everyone is in this room He is working with his own copy From the question of the candle. And for wax problems of any kind, And in any battlefield, These payoffs are in the if-then formula, On which we constructed many of our activities, do not work. Now, I symbolize, this is meeting me crazy. And that’s not – here’s the idea. It is no longer a feeling. Okay? I am a lawyer. I do not believe in feelings. This is not a philosophy. I` m American. I do not believe in ideology.( Laughter) This is a fact. Or as we say in my hometown, Washington, DC True fact.( Laughter)( snap) Let me give you an example that clarifies what I imply. Let me collect the evidence presented here. Because I am not telling you a narrative, I really prove a case. Female and jury surmounts, here are some clues: Dan Ariely, one of the greatest economists today, He, along with three of my honourable colleagues, conducted a study on some of the mother’s students. Which. T They payed MIT students a change of recreations That involves innovation, And machine skills and focus. And they offered them in return for their participation Three measures of remunerations. Big reinforce, medium wage, large-scale bonus. Okay? If you perform very well, you get a big bonus, and so on. what happened? As long as the number of jobs requires simply mechanical abilities Compensations caused as expected: The higher the payout, the higher the performance. good? But one of the tasks expects Mental ability, though indispensable The bigger bonus led to the worse performance. Then “theyre saying”, Okay. Let’s see if there is any artistic bias here. Let’s go to Madurai, India and measure it. ” The their living standards is lower In Madurai, the wage is modest in North American standards, It has a bigger impact here. Same topic. A place of tournaments and three stages of bonus. what happened? People to whom the average reward was provided They did not do a better errand than those to whom he offered the small reward. But this time, the person or persons to whom he afforded the most difficult honors, They did the worst out of all. In eight of the nine chores we analysed in the three ventures, Higher stimuli led to worse performance. Is there any kind of socialist conspiracy? Sensitivity occurring now? No. These are economists from EM. Which. T, From Carnegie Mellon, University of Chicago. Do you know who is sponsor such research? Federal Reserve Bank of the United State. That is the American experience Let’s go across the ocean to the London School of Economics.( IL, S, E) The London School of Economics. The academy has graduated 11 Nobel prize winner wins in financials. Teaching center for enormous economic philosophers Like George Soros and Frederick Hayek And Mike Jagger .( Laughter) Last month, just last month, Economists in this school looked at 51 studies On payoff plans to raise performance within business. This is something that the economists there said. “We find the financial incentives It may negatively affect the overall act. ” There is a contradiction between what discipline knows And what is happening at work. Which worries me while we stand here in ruins Economic downfall, That is a lot of organizations She makes her own decisions And its policies about ability and parties, Based on outdated, ill-considered assumptions They are more inherent in folklore than discipline. And if we really want to get out of this economic chaos, And if we really hanker high performance in that The central tasks of the twenty-first century, The solution is not to do more of the wrong things. As alluring parties with a sweeter carrot, Or menacing them with a sharper lodge. We need a whole new approach. The good information about all of this is that scientists Those who were studying the science of motive introduced us to this new method. It is a technique built around more self-stimulation. It’s built around the desire to get things done because they matter Because we loved it, because it is interesting And because it is part of something important. And as I see it, this operating system is at work It revolves around three components: Independence, finesse, and having a purpose. Independence, the drive to oversee “peoples lives” by ourselves. Dexterity, the desire to be better and better at something important. Purpose: the yearning to do what we do Serving something bigger than ourselves. These are the building blocks of an entirely new operating system For our the enterprises and our transaction. Today I really want to talk about independence. During the twentieth century, we came up with the idea of management. Management did not emerge from nature. Management is like – not a tree It’s like a Television set. good? Someone fabricated it. This does not mean to say that he will live forever. Management is great. The traditional concepts of management are excellent If you want to comply. But if you want to integrate, autonomy works better. Let me give you some examples from some Radical Ideas of Autonomy. What that symbolizes – that you will not encounter much, But you will see the beginnings of something worthwhile happening. Because what you represented is to give enough beings In moderation, yes. To frame the money aside. Then give people a lot of independence. Let me give you some examples. How many of you have heard about Atlasian? It looks like it’s less than half.( Laughter) Atlasian is an Australian software company. And they do a wonderful thing. A few occasions a year they tell their designers, Go in the next 24 hours and work on whatever you want, As long as it is not part of your chore insight. Work on whatever you want. ” So operators can use this time to innovate Good code or neat hacker. Then they demonstrate all the things that they have developed To their colleagues and to the rest of the company, In that tempestuou assemble in the end. And then, being Australian, everyone potions brew. They call it the Fed IX periods. Why? Because they have to deliver something in one day. neat name. not bad. Great trademark violation. But it’s a inventive name.( Laughter) That one day of intense independence Produce a wide range of software assistants You are not, if any She was so successful that Atlasian took her to the next step 20% of the time. Well-known by Google. Where designers can work and return 20% of their duration At work on anything they demand. They have independence in their season, And in their operation, in their squad, and in their wording. Okay? Radical amounts of independence, And on Google, as many of you know, Nearly half of brand-new concoctions are in a usual time They are born in the 20% of the time. Things like Gmail, Orkut, and Google News. Let me give you a more radical example. Something called a results-based working conditions The ROWE Created by two American consultants It is used by about a dozen fellowships around North America. In ROWE, beings don’t have any counters. They come when they are want. And they don’t have to be in the part at a certain time. Nor any time. They time have to get their work done. how and when And where they do it is entirely up to them. Sessions in such systems are optional. So what happens? In almost every administration productivity rises, The employee’s engagement with run too rises The level of satisfaction is also higher for employees, and the loss declines. Independence, dexterity and determination, These are the building blocks of a new style of doing business. Now some might look at this and say, “Well what you are saying resounds delightful, but it is perfect.” And I say, “No.I have proof.” In the mid-1 990 s, Microsoft started Encyclopedia project called Encarta. They employed all the right stimuli. All the liberty incentives, that is, they paid even health professionals They write and evaluate thousands of articles. Paid overseers likewise checked the entire project So we are to be able to make sure they stick to required budget and time limits. A few years later another encyclopedia showed. Another simulation, right? Share just for fun. Nobody gets paid a cent, euros, or yen. Do it because you like to do it. Now if you exclusively get ten years ago To any economic, anywhere And I told him, “I have two different systems to create an encyclopedia. If they play, which one will be successful? ” Ten year ago you wouldn’t have found a single fully self-conscious economist anywhere On planet earth, He could have prophesied Wikipedia. That is the battle of the Titanic between the two methods. Muhammad Ali and Frazier struggle over motive. Right? This is the knockout in Manila. Okay? Internal versus external stimulant. Independence, domination and intent, Versus carrots and pokes, and who earns? Self-motivation, independence, familiarity and determination, Lightning fast. Let me compile it. There is a contradiction between what discipline knows and what happens at work. Now is what science knows. One: the reinforces of the 20th century, Those stimuli that we think are a ordinary part of the job, It labor, but surprisingly it is produced in a very narrow context. Second, these “if-then” prompts ever destroy imagination. Third: the secret of high performance It is not the incentives and sanctions, But it is the unseen intrinsic pressures. The drive to do things for its own sake is. Motivation to do things spawns it important. And here is the best part. Here’s the best part. We all already know this. Science shows the validity of what we know in our nerves. So, if we define this fault Between what science knows and what business does, If we bringing our compulsions, the relevant recommendations of our purposes Into the twenty-first century, If we transcend this dangerous and lazy ideology For lodges and carrots, We can enhance our business, We can solve a lot of these existing difficulties, And maybe, perhaps, perhaps We can change the world. I waived my instance.( snap ).