A beginner’s guide to quantum computing | Shohini Ghose

Translator: Dalia Nour Eldeen Auditor: Aseel A. Let's play a game. Imagine that you are in Las Vegas, In a casino, And she decided to play a game on one of the casino computers, Just like you play solitaire or chess. A computer can make movements in the game just like a human player. This is a coin game. Start by showing the coin pictures, And the computer will play first. He can choose to toss the coin in the air or not, But you cannot see the result. Next, it's your turn. You can also toss the coin in the air or not, Your move to your opponent, the computer, will not be detected. Finally, the computer plays again and can toss the coin or not, And after the three stages, Currency is revealed, And if the pictures, the computer wins, And if you write, you win. Therefore, it is a fairly simple game, Everyone plays honestly and the coin is fair, So you have a 50 percent chance to win in this game.

To confirm this, I asked my students to play this game on our computers, And after many, many attempts, Their win rate ends at 50 percent or closes at 50 percent, As expected. Sounds boring game, right? What if you could play this game on a quantum computer? Now, Las Vegas casinos don't have quantum computers. As I know, But the personal computer works on the quantum computer. And here it is. But what is a quantum computer? Well, it describes quantum physics Treated atoms and basic particles, Such as electrons and photons. So, a quantum computer works By controlling the interaction of these particles, But in a completely different way from our regular computers. Therefore, a quantum computer is not only a more powerful version From our current computers, Just like a light bulb that does not exceed the power of the candle.

You cannot create a light bulb by creating a better and better wax. A light bulb is a different technology. Depend on a deeper scientific understanding. Similarly, a quantum computer is a new type of device. Based on quantum physics, And just like a light bulb that changed society, Quantum computers have the power to influence Many aspects of our life, Our needs include our security, caring for our health and even the Internet. Therefore, all companies around the world are working on creating these devices, And to see what is interesting about all this, Let's play a quantum computer game. Therefore, we can log in to the quantum personal computer from here, Which means I can play the game remotely, You can too. And for that to happen, you might remember getting the email in advance, from TED, At your request if you will choose to throw the coin in the air or not, If you play the game. Well, actually, we asked you to choose between a circle or a square.

You don't know this, but choosing the circle means "throwing a coin in the air," Your choice of square was "Don't throw it in the air." We received 372 responses. thank you. With these means, we can play 372 games against a quantum computer Using your options. And it's a fairly quick game to play. So, I can show you results here. Sadly, you didn't do well. (Laughter) The quantum computer won nearly every game. He lost only a little due to operational errors in the computer. (Laughter) So, how did he achieve this amazing winning streak? Seems like magic or cheating, But in reality, it's just the act of quantum physics. Here's how it works. A regular computer simulates the pictures or writing of a coin a little, Zero or one, Or it is currently throwing up or down pieces inside your computer.

A quantum computer is completely different. Quantum broadcast is much more agile, non-binary unit. It can be found in a geological match, or a combination of zero and one, With some possibility of being zero and some possibility of being one. In other words, it is a different identity. For example, the chance of it being zero could be 70 percent And the chance of being one is 30 percent Or 80-20 or 60-40.

The possibilities are endless. Main idea here Is that we have to deal with the true value of zero and one We allow some ambiguity. Therefore, during the game, The quantum computer creates this agility that mixes pictures and writing, Zero and one, Therefore, regardless of what the player does, Throw it in the air or not, The overlay remains coherent. It's kind of like mixing two liquids. If agitated or not, liquids remain mixed, But in its final move, A quantum computer can not mix zero and one It recovers photos perfectly so that you always lose. (Laughter) If you thought all of this was kind of weird, you were totally right. There are no regular coins in jingle between pictures and writing. We do not really experience this quantum liquid In our daily lives. Therefore, if you are confused about the quantity, Don't worry, she'll understand. (Laughter) But even we don't experience quantum force, We can see its very effective effect.

You saw the data for yourself. The quantum computer won Because he exploited superposition and ambiguity, These quantitative properties are great, Not just to win coin games, But to also create quantum technologies of the future. So, let me give you three examples of potential applications Which can change our lives. First, quantum ambiguity can be used to generate private keys For encrypted messages sent from one website to another Therefore, hackers cannot perfectly copy the secret.

Due to quantitative ambiguity. They might violate the laws of quantum physics To break through the key. Therefore, this kind of unbreakable encryption is already bank tested And in other institutions globally. Today, we use more than 17 billion connected devices globally. Just imagine the effect of quantum encryption that might happen in the future. And second, quantitative techniques may shape health and medical care. For example, design and analysis of molecules for drug development It is a challenge to today's problem, This is because the description and counting are exactly that Of all the quantum properties of all atoms in a molecule Even for our fast computers, this is a computationally difficult task. But a quantum computer might work better. Because it works using the same quantum properties The molecule also tries to imitate that. Therefore, the quantitative receptor simulates large-scale drug development It may lead to a cure for diseases like Alzheimer's.

That affects the lives of thousands. And third, my favorite app over quantity The transfer of information remotely from one site to another Without transmitting the information physically. Sounds like science fiction but it's possible, Because these identities are characterized by the smoothness of quantum particles Which can be intertwined with time and space And in this way that when you change something about one particle, It can influence the other, This creates a teleportation channel. This is already proven in the search laboratories And it could be part of the future of the quantum internet.

We do not have such an internet yet, But my team is working on this potential, By imitating a quantum internet on a quantum computer. So, we designed and implemented some interesting new protocols Such as remote transmission between users in the internet And transfer data efficiently And even safe voting. So, being a quantum physicist is very interesting for me. I highly recommend it. (Laughter) We will be explorers in Quantum Wonderland. Who knows what apps we'll discover next. We must tread carefully and responsibly Because we are building our quantum future. And for me, personally, I don't see quantum physics just as a tool for building quantum computers.

I see quantum computers as a way for us to explore mysterious nature And we reveal more about this hidden world outside of our experience. How wonderful that we are human beings, With our relatively limited entry into the world, Far beyond the horizons, we can still see Just using our imagination and creativity. And the world rewards us By showing us how incredibly interesting and amazing it is. The future is uncertain fundamentals. And to me that's definitely exciting. thank you. (clap).

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