Welcome to the third lecture on module eleven whichis on memory testing. So, until now I mean we have been discussing about checking out ADPGfor quite a lot of part of sequences circuits, combinational circuits, offline. After which we now have obvious that,in case you are going for offline testing that’s it’s utilizing 80, they can be issues inin CQ testing. So, we now have long gone to a constructed in sectors mechanism of base and many others.So, the wide variety of coverage we have now built in now, comprises lots of sequential and combinational circuits. So, sequential and combinational circuits in case you feel, there in reality composedof gates, flip flops, wires and all these matters, however there’s one more very importantmodule of VLSI circuits, that’s without a doubt the memory.So, in case of reminiscence testing,as we must realize that there can be fairly different, from the other digital testingof sync synchronous, asynchronous or combinational circuits, there may be sequential and combinationalcircuits. Whilst on the grounds that, the thought is that I mean, allthe digital circuits sequential combinational something we discussed till now, we combinationon good judgment gates and flip flop, flip flop themselves produced from logic gates and all, but thememory blocks without a doubt what otherwise, see the suggestion is that, what’s the reminiscence blocklike. So, when you’ve got a block of RAM, DRAM, SRAM what ever. So, you’ve got plenty of memorycells over here and they comprise the value of zero and 1 you can write it and that you may readit back. So, it’s unlike I imply it’s not like the operation,I mean it is not like, I imply with the thought is that you simply have to compress a enormous numberof reminiscence cells in an extraordinarily small area, it’s not like you D flip flop where you can storeyour area.So, in the event you have to make a reminiscence element, reminiscence block of say 1 GB making use of onlyflip flop it will be, so huge that you simply can not make it, fabricate it or self lucrative inthe market. So, for those who have to make a 1 GB of ram kindof stuff. So, the technology to be used could be very exceptional due to the fact that, you must have avery, very compressed discipline and an extra factor the reminiscences may be very symmetric given that, ithas reminiscence cells, which you could entry the cells. And anything you can do is that, read thecells, which you could write that cells that’s the only thing you want to do, there is no otherlogical operations involved within the memory that is the complicated of the flip-flop.So,that that additionally outlets that the bit, bit 0 or 1, but definitely it additionally involving lot ofwhat which you can call common sense operations. So, the philosophy of making use of a flip flop andthe philosophy of mem using a memory bit one of a kind, even supposing the job is the identical. So, in the caseof flip flops there aren’t truly symmetric. So, I mean in case of a reminiscence. So, in memoryor concept is that we have a symmetric constitution and we have to compress as many as bit aspossible and the operation is only read and write.So, we must compress it and in caseof flip flops the philosophy is distinctive here, also you have to store a little and retaina bit it additionally includes lot of, what do you call combinational logics formation logiclogic operations. So, we can not have a symmetric. So, that isthe bit exclusive and, so in case of flip flop situated reminiscence or in forms of flip flopitself. So, that you may have spare to have rather larger discipline due to the fact that, non symmetric and thepurpose can be distinctive, but in case of memory as is best read and write operations,very symmetric in nature.So, you ought to compress as many bits as viable, making use of avery small discipline there may be moderately mild philosophical they are unique.So, because of this this necessitates different, fault units and experiment tactics for memoryblocks due to the fact that, of the very sincerely design philosophy and, also the memory block design.So, you might have heard about 10 years ago. So, when we had 1 GB of rough disk measurement tobe an excellent factor and RAM size of 500, 12 MB of 128 MB sort of factor, but now, whatis the hard disk in TERA byte says and also you RAM and ram and your ROM I imply what you calland your DRAM and the system what you’re put in you pc they have long past to four GB or 8GB. So, for this reason the memory technological know-how is increasingvery, very rapid, but in spite of that regardless of your reminiscence dimension increase, the size ofthe reminiscence chips or the area of the element is multiplied.So, what you are doing is that,we are utilizing very increase technological know-how. So, within the equal dye field or a very minimumincrease in dye area, we’re looking to put as many as more bit cells feasible that isliving difficult, because of this it’s announcing, it certainly not take cap ability for quadruplesevery 3 years, which ends up in slash in memory cost per bit that is being stored.That is what announcing, that you are not able to your dimension of the RAM or measurement of RAM chips are decreasedlot, you when compared 10 years back and nonetheless then the quantity of memory that you may takein or the capability has been extended, that’s what the identical subject, we’re seeking to putas many bits as possible in an extraordinarily compressed approach of trend of the reminiscence.So, that the the rate per bit is diminish for this reason, cash is of rate of the RAMchips are lowering and the capacitor is growing, all this taking place on account that, ofthe wide develop in fabrication technological know-how.So, that is what we are seeing excessive storagecapacity is received through, develop in density which implies scale down in the dimension of thecapacitor which is used to store just a little. So, the basic concept is that, there is somestorage cost to a gadget which truely stores the reminiscence. So, we aren’t going toa reminiscence, this is not memory design class. So, that you could look at many analogy design ormemory design guide, so there are one of a kind reminiscence constructions like EPROM, promenade and RAM,DRAM, SDRAM lot of specific architectures are there, however the common proposal is that, thereis some variety of capacitive element or some are the element which you can take, image, portyou can say for the trendy very state-of-the-art reminiscence.They some form of capacitive driver chargeto retailer the device, the place you saved the cost if the worth is to be stored 1 andotherwise will store a charge of zero want the value to be stored the logic zero. So, now whatis going down. So, now, a days very, very new technology I imply, new fabric or fabricationtechnologies are die dielectric substances like barium and all those matters all these,these are new I mean what do you name fabrication science, utilizing extraordinary dielectric materialscoming as much as construct up the capacitors, which is cost by way of contraptions, if you want to haveto have a bigger capacitors and hold the identical space.That is what’s the thought is there, with this new lot of recent applied sciences like this typesof dielectric substances and this is truly bodily layout stuff, which that you could findout from many regular, physical device, bodily design books or bodily gadget lectures orphysical device stuffs in vein, however we are not going to duvet in this lecture on thison this checking out up on account that, this covering most often on the memory design, however the verybasic limitation i need to stress is that, by making use of lot of enhance fabrication applied sciences,utilizing more moderen and more moderen types of dielectric substances used for doping and making a ICs,we are ready to compress much more stuffs or far more reminiscence capability into small discipline.That’s with the aid of increasing the capacitance on the, by using preserving the equal quantity of capacitanceyou can assume and in an awfully less amount of area that’s les higher capacitance, we maintainedin this same physical area that’s within the notion is that, in different words we are havingmore potential growing in the less quantity of house.Additional reminiscences at the moment are techniquesare even be developed. So, you can access the memory very fast, with rapid stage modeaccess is there accelerated data output synchronous and also the double data expense.Additionally new applied sciences are arising in memory design, like quick page mode way you canvery swiftly entry the memory and pagings are rapid all these things, in small print youcan find out many reminiscence design publication and also I imply notice you name double data rate SDRAMSare all those things are advance in applied sciences, that is double information price manner in each theclock simply you can access data are which you could write the info from reminiscence.So, the inspiration is the memory applied sciences advancing far finish beliefs and bounds, like an actual goingfor additionally for the broaden on your combinational and sequential circuit design or so is slowlyshrinking in nature, through using this some micron science, in a similar way in the memory I meanperiod time additionally, we are having higher reminiscence sizes in equal field, greater fas rapid memoryaccess rate, like better reliability, double data rate acceptor.So, these are all thefuture aspects growing additionally within the memory field. So, what occurs is the, plenty of failureas within the cases of easy sequential circuit or combinational circuits, memory circuitchips are complete disasters, but there are two or three philosophical difference, which willmake reminiscence testing bit specific from what we are going from this sequential and thecombinational circuit trying out, in sequential and combinational circuit trying out what weare visible, is that if the circuit is having any defect that’s determined on checking out you throwit off.And you ship handiest the great chips which areI means which are detected fault free, but here, if you are trying to do that with the memory,then you’re going to to find that round only 1 or 2 percentage of the chips are even onlylower so as to be the eat that you are going to experiment you reminiscence chips and discover theroyal through out all the chips as defects, then you are going to manage the challenge that, yourdefect that I mean your yield can be 1 percent or less than that, then what is the proposal,in case of reminiscence as it is extremely symmetric. So, we are using this type of technology.So, that we are percent trying to % as many stuffs in an awfully small area the field as feasible.So, if you make use fabrication in a stuff method on a stack means manner may have lotof possibility of fault symmetries.So, what is the resolution. So, in contrast to general circuits,we do not discard any inaccurate reminiscence chips. So, why is that, to start we need in the endwe are going to have one, we will be able to find out that 1 or 2 percentage of the chips that you can salein the market, so you are not able to tolerate this. So, one thing is that, you can make actuallymake reminiscence design in past method. So, that if likelihood of faults are there, much less orthen what’s going to happen is said the chip area will probably be extra after which it’ll be average lucrative.So, what would you doing is that, I way, we say in seeing I mean the yield of memorychips will likely be close about 0 percent, see the ordinary chips practically have a defect.So, I imply right here you might have put in extraordinary philosophy, so what’s the philosophy is that,now that’s the learned that as we mentioned correct now that all memory chips more or less100 percent chips can have 1 or 2 defects.So, what is the proposal is the you can not throwthem out. So, what’s the inspiration, you have to repair them and also you have to ship it them.So, what the men and women do is that, they take the reminiscence IC and at the same time fabricating say 1GB of reminiscence they will fabricate whatever extra, will not be precisely 1 GB will be somethingmore than that. Now, what do you do is that first we haveto discover the faults, in in case of combinational sequential circuits we observe the faults eventually,this erroneous with the 4 digit from the been for chips already been items and heads witha exceptional philosophy. So, what we do, as you recognize that all of the chips are fault. So,as we fabricate relatively further phase within the reminiscence, 1 GB need to say fabricate 1.2 orsomething like that.Now, what occurs you find out that there fault detection and youalso diagnose these faults. So, so in all memory we find some cells thereare truly redundancy and a few extra cells there in the memory considering the fact that, you ought to repairand promote. So, if you happen to pronouncing that i’m shipping a 1 GB memory, you are not able to say say you aregiving 500 MB type of memory that is not viable. So, you must I approach in some way fabricatemore discipline, then what you’re claiming and then you definately need to discard to repair your chipthat come what may you need to repair, when repairing shouldn’t be viable, by some means you ought to do somethingwith the fault section together with your IC and you then have to exchange with them the redundantcells. And, in order that absolutely 1 GB your transport withsomething like, say you you must ship some 10 mangoes and 1 or 2 mango may be below 10.So, what do is that you you you get some 12 or thirteen mangoes and you then find out the this1 or 2 or 3 mangoes aren’t appropriate.So, you de market them since, you can’t once thechips are fabricate you are not able to way cut out the part and threw it off, use the de marketthe mangoes and with the I approach no longer the great mangoes and nonetheless stay hold 11 mangoesare good and that you could ship them to the purchasers, same philosophy use are used about right here.So, these are less expensive 1 GB that you can fabricate some thing extra, you notice the fault as wellas diagnose it. So, in case of combinational and sequential circuits this factor you didnot diagnose this fault, but right here also we diagnose, which subject or which cells of thiscircuit diagram fault. So, whenever you discover that there’s fault. So, you have to markthose cells and you need to do some there’s invariably multiplexing arrangements is there.So, these some memory repairing, you are not moving into small print, but the idea to recognize,if there may be some what, some sort of repairing to be had that is how do you repair you cannotrepair. So, there are some 10 cells which might be damaged.So, there is multiplexing association wherein case, that you can join the inputs of whichare going into the hazardous cells to the extra redundant boot cells you will have been there.So, you connect them and, in a similar fashion to the output of the failure cells, should be againcouple de couple drafts that is cut off cut off utilizing a multiplexing association and,in order that the output of the boot cells which might be extra redundant in market I mean redundantin your chips can be introduced into the typical reminiscence subject.So, at the same time using of the multiplexing, so as soon as in faults diagnose, the corresponding cellsis disconnected and new fault free cell is attached right function.So, how wedo sometimes do it by way of multiplexing arrangement and regularly, we achieve it via blowing upsome laser fuses that is there’s some u u we that you could have some multiplexing arrangements,so you discover that these circuits aren’t working accurately.So, how you will de market it and as well as connection a a input and output the cellscan be blown off, via utilising these laser cutters or some some thing sort de multiplexing ormultiplexing chips and which you could I mean completely decide upon or deselect the appro for example,that is the enter, which is input for enter to the faulty misguided misguided what you callfaulty reminiscence cell, that is for the nice phone. So, what we must do, this there shouldbe multiplexer kind of a thing, that is your marks.So, that is your enter. So, it is correspondsto 0. So, this corresponds to zero, this corresponds to 1.So, you should normally discover that, the enter must by no means go here given that, it is faultythe inputs already go here, so you that if I put zero in the multiplexer sorry if you put0 in the marks, choose line of the marks. So, information will go to the common section and itis ordinary finish of now and if we put one on this prefer line of the multiplexer, datawill come to the erroneous phase. So, you completely make this multiplexing input as zero. So, thatdata will invariably will come to the typical additional memory mobilephone.So, this may also be executed by way of I imply making use of this permanently fixing the multiplexing selectiveselect traces. So, that your information goes to the ordinary part of this redundant cellsis fabricator, it’s going to go there and the opposite elements it will no longer be used or usually youcan use.So, that you can laser science to cut out, like for illustration, that is the pattern,this coming to here and each it is coming to right here and right here. So, demark that this isfaulty. So, you blow that misguided using a laser. So, that your knowledge will come to the normalcircuits. In a similar way, you are able to do it for the output however,these are surely i am telling in an awfully, very crude manner since, there are all memorytechnologies involved, like reminiscence if they failed detection, diagnosis and restore allthose matters. So, that can also be the scope of the reward path, however i am simply giving avery temporary or a wide, I mean famine form of an proposal.So, if you are youcan learn by means of any, I imply memory design books one of the vital reference also that you can findout in the course. So, now, that’s the two philosophical change.So, first philosophical change is that you simply have to diagnose the fault, as well asdetect and diagnose which isn’t in the case of sequential and combinational circuits.Secondly, you have got to also restore there may be redundant a part of the circuit.So, you haveto also restore this and second thing is that, these are two one philosophical stuff, anotherphilosophical stuff is, the soul performance telephone is to store knowledge and charge anddischarge that’s to store some thing and retrieve it back.So, use of good judgment gate I mean. So, you I mean. So, the notion is right here idea is that. So, anlogic gates are used in for a lot of different style of logical expertise. So, this whole structureof a recollections, might be specific from the constitution of good judgment gates. So, these two willactually result in the above two aspects will differentiate trying out good judgment gates from, memorytesting. So, this will likely sincerely lead to a further type of type mannequin and also I meanthis types of matters, says that you simply have to go for a restore and also you should have an redundantpart.So, the restore is feasible. So, when you consider that, of this repairing facilitiesrequire required considering the fact that, to resolve all the chips are faults. So, you have got to restore itotherwise your yield with the not up to 1 percentage otherwise you mean less than that and yourmemory structure is very, very symmetric and, so many matters may also be stacked up in oneplace and functionality is nothing, but storing 0 or 1 and retrieving them back. So, thesetwo points make the philosophy of what do you name, the circuit I imply the circuit testingdifferent from memory checking out.So, on this course I mean on this lectures,2 lectures will see what are the unique memory fault items and the way we are able to detectthem. So, that may be very common inspiration we’re going to see. So, these are reminiscences architectures sorry,this is the definitely reminiscence structure this is reminiscence architecture or memory model, thisis common memory architecture what do you’ve. So, this is general memory on your publication youcan discover. So, reminiscence could have cells. So, these are row decoders. So, supply a handle.So, handle will let you know that say you provide the tackle as 00010. So, it is going to be the secondmemory area will likely be accessed and also you have to find out the column decoder.So, this is memory may also bearing some columns.So, which which part of the datawill you entry then particularly it can be, if you want to access the entire word. So, thisis the whole phrase access part of it. So, the column it’s going to tell which part of thecolumn you must decode and there are cells amplifiers so that it will analog circuits whichwe take this information out from the specific section. So, this in a similar way, but if you wish to writethe memory vicinity, then additionally you have to tell the deal with bars which is the which areawhich reminiscence location say for example, 3. So, this is the reminiscence region which I wantto write and then the column decoder will tell which part we have to write. So, thispart shall be chosen and your this some driver in the circuit, so we can inform what valuesyou must write, these are very normal reminiscence structure.So, the components are that is the reminiscence cellphone, which is the stack part is particularly differentfrom what do you call our normal sequential and combinational circuits and i have alreadytold you, there’s some redundancy of air.So, if you’re I imply some part of cells getdamaged. So, what happens is that, it is going to genuinely re orient the reference to theglowing fuses and all something, we discussed. So, that this this is the pass, so whatI am announcing method pass manner. So, that this part of the reminiscences phone has long gone again. So,this enter will grow to be over here, that is the redundant sorry.So, that is the is a few. So, this part of this used to be I imply some sort of a drawback. So,that is are some redundant telephone. So, that is the rednudant.So, this is not going to join here,it will come again right here and from right here it will come again. So, this is bypassed and this muextra redundant phone comes into snapshot, these are this repairing them after detecting somefaults. So, these are very, very wide define of reminiscence structure volts, what is thememory architecture is. So, I mean they already advised you, whereveryou learn data from the memory. So, from the row and column has to be selected accordinglyto the information bus, situated on the tackle and the row and column decoder, which is the appropriatepart of the reminiscence of the phone that is get selected and get related to the identical cellrepair which equal mobile of the info.So, once we have to write it. So, you need to do itsame factor, you decide on the row and column and then, we deriver will write the valueto this one. So, what do you require to hint the memory,we do not know different logical operate accepting it is just without a doubt read some knowledge, writesome information that’s it. So, what you do, take any style of ending, oaring all those thingsare not required. So, what’s the two steps you want to do. So, repair a worth of 01 tobe that in a that it must be very nice, that is self should be in a position to be zero and 1.So, Secondly, the worth must be also be capable to expense from a cells both zero, it shouldbe able to write zero, in case you are equipped to 1, it will have to in a position to write 1 and this shouldbe possible in all of the reminiscence cells.Secondly, correct extra is there that is,if you wish to access this part of memory. So, via giving the proper values in the rowand column decoder So, these are decoder are truly combinational circuit decoder. So, there are also essentially typical circuits,I method average logical circuits. So, they only decoders. So, only this phase is quitedifferent from what do you call basic combinational and sequential circuits. So, the third faultpoint is, it must be if your are working to a tackle I manner to entry this part ofthe reminiscence. So, it must be capable to do it, by using giving suitable values to the row and columndecoder. So, you should be ready to prefer this thatis the fault decoder for this row and column decoder.So, you will have to able to look that ifI want to write 0 and that i should be competent to get a zero, if i need if I wish to 1 I shouldable to get 1 from the same memory phone and as well as if I want to entry the propermemory telephone to the address. So, I must capable to entry the correct section, if I need to accessthis and by means of this some partial some failure within the row and column decoder i am accessthis for the that is one more style of fault. So, you will have to be I imply ready to examine. So,simplest these three forms of faults you should be in a position to test in the memory block. So, thatsit. So, established on this, we must be setting up the fault mannequin for the reminiscence So, I meanthere as I told you, there are three three unique varieties of circuits within the memory.So, this one is the distinct fault from thiswhich is normally fault primary fault to be established on account that, which you might be honestly that is thecompressed ability kind of reminiscence cells or anything, either the different from the combinationsequential circuits, these are your average digital decoders, so common circuits andsame simplifiers and divers they’re and all circuits, there will not be digital circuits. So, with the three distinctive kind of circuitsare there and which must be ready to validated. So, now, what is the thought. So, proposal you see, that you do not generalgo explicitly for testing out, these these blend circuits and this digital circuits,well what we do is that, we travels every reminiscence cellphone one after the other and we can try to write 0get zero will write 1 knowledge 1, once more we can additionally put the reverse, write 1, get 1 write zero get0. So, should you would attempt to do it for all person cells one by one in sequential manner. So,all of the facets might be confirmed.If you’re going in a sequential manner firstthis then, this then, this then, this that is the notion is that row and the column decodershould be working in a right trend when you consider that, or else, when you’re making it jumbled up a time,you’re access this your are having access to this factor so you are making data, long knowledge. So, ifyour using this all this factor in an extraordinarily sequential manner. So, row and column in a what’s differentin in in another feel be confirmed or proven. In a similar fashion, feel amplifiers means you writesome knowledge you might be getting access to some information. So, in case your are becoming writing some appropriate data,getting some proper knowledge; that suggests, experience amplifier is proper, if your getting it properdata and if your equipped to write down competently then also testing shall be driver.So, explicitlyyou needn’t experiment all this faults. So, if you sequential write all faults of memorycells or in some predefined trend, you already know RAM writing in this place and to get backto this vicinity. So, so predefined order with a view to recognize, writeout the memory and you learn them back and when not directly the whole lot is demonstrated. So,that is what is really you will do. So, what are the different fault items. So,the equal sampler as I informed alongside circuits and decoders are normal digital circuits,however we don’t bear in mind digital and the gate degree and experience amplifier and common sense circuits,do not recollect and scan the in view that, analog checking out is wholly extraordinary, we aren’t goingto scan them in a explicit method, even the decoders we’re not going to state utilizing astuck and fault model or what do which you could call bagging fault mannequin you already know.We are truely either I informed you, will write the sequential memory blocks or memory cellsas manner and retrieving them back and there’s a need to see, climate I imply everythingis suitable or no longer, as I having that is the case, then we know that all the blocks areindirectly verified.So, what are the distinct fault models, which is sufficient for memoryblocks persons have adopted, caught at fault that is each and every of the that is non of the memoryfault caught to 0 caught at 1. So, it may be we are able to write zero or 1, secondis transition fault, transition fault way you will have to have you should have if 1 is 0is have a written, in the event you try exchange it from zero to 1. So, that transition after cells bepossible, coupling faults one very importance that to usual type, like I mean you shouldable to head from zero to 1 and 1 to zero. So, these are different very most important, these are some theseare also to be had in sequential and combinational circuits. So, although now we have mentioned onlyabout stuck at items. But, transition faults, prolong faults usingfaults are also don’t forget in case of a sequential and combinational circuits, however these aresome of the are the very primary scan we most commonly exist in the memory this is calledcoupling kind considering the fact that, the memory cells are like this and they’re, very a lot stack withthe nearly each and every different, this is stack very a lot within the cells of a memory near every other.So, one may upon is that this two cells may just get coupled.So, any alterations right here, may just affecthere, in a similar way if you happen to see like this. So, if you have three reminiscence cells this is thememory cells, surrounded by using some other cells they usually very close every other. So, whateverhappening within the peripheral of this may impact this mobilephone. So, this things are called couplingfault, neighbourhood pattern sensation fault a handle decoder beneath receive of faults inwill see that it can be robotically blanketed if you are overlaying this, so that we willsee.So, this coupling fault and in no way defaultscells are taking place since, the reminiscence is very so much stacked and all the cells are verynear to one another in an extraordinarily small subject. So, something going down periphery, may try to affectthe crucial part of the, one of the one telephone of the opposite. So, this coupling fault and neighbourhoodpattern density faults are more commonly are new sorts of faults which is proven reminiscence, theyresult behind his is is very in intriguing for the reason that, the whole lot is stacked are close toeach different.So, I mean usual of this cell can, stay very a lot free are, it may well movefree underneath default case type evaluate to it’s neighbours. So, because of this this neighbourhoodpart, neighbourhood pattern, sensitive faults and coupling faults are each it in a veryimportant position within the reminiscence. So, slowly see tricky one after the other each ofthem and we will additionally see why they’re more detail in a reminiscence. So, there may be first thestuck at faults. So, I mean how will this caught at fault, I imply in a normal case. So,state 0 replaces that some recollections state is having zero and 1 signifies that reminiscence cell hasretains 1. So, if you write as 0, firstly whether it is 0 that reminiscence cellphone in case you write 0w zero. So, you come to this one, if you want to write 1. So, you write w equals to1 you go to state s 1. In a similar way, for those who from for those who state valueis 1 in the event you write a 1. So, you’ll be in state s 1 and should you write as zero from you lgo to state can be common state diagram from node cellphone, but now you’ll start at 0.So,what will occurs, if you’re best on this state that it’s 0 and in case you writeas 0. So, no challenge otherwise attempt to write one within the cellphone, you’ll be in that samestate. So, that’s virtually from stuck at 0 type right here, if I at from what’s goingto occur if the one on this state. So, if you write as zero you can’t go to, goback to this state most effective you only in that’s on state simplest and in case you write a 1 that isand this is the case. So, I means this is the state diagram for a natural memory celland this state diagram for stuck at zero and caught at fault. So, that is what is been elaboratehere. So, what happens? So, stuck at is relocating common sense worth is always 0 or 1 this caught atfault are sequential or combinational circuit on this case also, stuck at fault in a memoryis 1 in with the logic price of a form of zero and 1.So, it state 0 it zero and state 1 plus 1, however should you can not transfer from this to this withthe caught at 1 or caught at zero for.Now, from transition fault, transition faultis what, transition fault way transition in a telephone, if transition fault in a phone phaseto make a zero to 1 or 1 to 0, transition that is if you wish to move this will that is 0to 1 if you want to move in a telephone. So, it’s going to be stuck to 0 it’ll not permit to denotecalled a rising time period with default or which you could call up up transition anything like thatand also could also be taking place that it wish to go from a mobilephone from 1 to 0, but that’s notpossible on the grounds that, defaults to stays as 1, so which you could name as a down transition fault.So, these are up and down transition faults are additionally very a lot outstanding in case of memorycells, where these also exits in a see combinational circuits, sequential circuits I imply if youare not mentioned that, but I mean in case that’s certainly referred to as delayed lift in delayedfaults are there, so that you are wish to go from zero to 1 with subtraction of a sameindividual, some nano indicators principally it happens, it waits for a very long time for the reason that,of the lengthen faults.So, this is the also map to transition faults, in a sequentialand combinational circuit. But, if you happen to now appear in reminiscence viewpoint,we simply appear at this state diagram for up transition for this is not allowed. So, yousee, but this isn’t a stuck at zero faults. So, these are change with this one ina caught at zero fault and on this case you see it’s a 0. So, if you want to write zero. So,of this might be there, if you wish to write a sorry if you want to write 1 over a w 1.So, from 0 to 1 you need to go that’s you cannot, go that you are going to remain right here, butthese not a stuck at fault.So, there shall be a state of 1. So, if one way or the other some how whatever thing no longer 0, some how shall be 1, in some case most commonly fault has happens.So, 1 to zero which you could come back, from s 1 that’s 1 in this that you could come back to this 1,however after we can’t elevate the value and if you want to write 1 that you will be in samecell, but if you want to caught at 0 faults. So, this phase would be no longer had been therein cells. So, these are the change between in a caught at zero fault and in a transitionfaults. Transition faults is you are not able to go from 0to 1, but when another way incidence of the faults it would be have in that this the togetherone over sum of cells making use of this up a essential memory, the cells are all filled upwith garbage value.So, it will be viable that unique mobile has price 1. So, youcan verify on to 0, but you need to head for prime. So, you can’t do that sorry this isa 1. So, it is going to be final that. So, this is a up transition first similarly, you canalso a down transition for this fashion. Now, very main is the coupling faultsbecause, as there are already advised that, reminiscence cells are very close to each other. So, I meansthey too men and women very near each and every different, then behaviour of on mobile will have an effect on the otherand if one character is he he he’s very close to about 10 in regards to the other humans.So, youalready recognize that the persona of the character who is round 10 other folks were influencedby the other to different people nearing to as. Now, identical case in memory is very need to stack.So, I approach it’s a cells. So, you could have anything over. So, all the folks around here. So,they’re truth of all are these cells will likely be affecting the this central cell in offwhere this one. So, this is the reason coupling fault is there are two cells, one is the coupledwith each and every different and there affecting each and every different.So, that that variety of fault is called couplingfault. So, this can be a coupling fault as title suggestimplies, deviation from common behaviour of a mobilephone due to the fact, of coupling with others due to the fact that,of getting I imply known as getting influenced different cells, so it occur. So, I mean youknow that a cellphone may also be, say that is fault mobilephone a fault mobile can also be coupled with memoryfor n plus 1 cells within the memory let expect, then for this targeted fault case or thefaulty phone. So, it should get coupled with one mobilephone.So, one approach this ends see one any one of them, then it cannot coupled with two cells.So, it’s going to be how much n c 2 dot, dot, dot which you can be referred to as in my n via n c n. So, itcan get upgraded with any person of the end faults it may be coupled with two cells dot, dotit can go to coupling with all finish of different cells.So, the quantity of the coupling faultscan be highly high its n c 1 plus n c 2 dot dot n c h.So, it is a very excessive in quantity. So, that quantity of one of a kind all feasible faults casewill be tremendously exponentially in quantity, you cannot go for that, so usual listingtaking that’s known as to coupling fault mannequin it assumes that one fault can be or one cellcan be coupled with at most some other mobilephone and that you could check out with the all are the cellslike. So, if there is finish cells.So, if you can get coupled with any person of them. So,there shall be n extraordinary varieties of faults most effective in comparison with n c 1 plus n c 2 dot, dotn c n. And well different caught at fault mannequin, we willhave discover that boot insurance plan as good as boot self belief on you I mean in fault trying out.So, this called the coupling, any two cells get coupled as good this one. So, if thereend cells in the memory on account that, there can also be c end to number of coupling of faults;undoubtedly, and to scale down that.So, you almost always you could, go that you may fully grasp that. So, thereis a enormous memory like right here. So, this mobilephone cannot be coupled with this mobile since, they are.So, far from each and every other. So, that you would be able to make a window in any respect this stuffsor which you could make a moving window type of a factor. So, this window will likely be shifted andthis window shifted, this window shifted. So, moving window inspiration, like this one.So, this is one window. So, then it’ll be once more shifted, this window might be again shifted,this window will be again shifted right here this remain.So, everyone knows this moving windowconcept. So; that suggests, we can recollect that two cellswhich lie inside ours distinct rectangular subject like for illustration, in this case only cellswithin this field can get compute and it is a mobilephone right here, cannot get above couplingeffective given that, this cells is greater, however this mobile can be ever getting coupling effective.So, this can be a moving window variety of a factor. So, you progress the window right here, you could movealso this one simplest this course or in the within the this path.So, through this one that you would be able to, lessen the quantity of all feasible couplings from ends n c 2to or this one. So, there are unique varieties of. So, the number is fixed. So, it admitsn c 2 if on account that 2 gate coupling faults and secondly, additionally we are able to we are able to minimize theanother down from n c 2 that by using watching at the standard of the faults that these twocells are very close every other.So, moving window ideas you are able to do that. So, now right here can be learning two types ofcoupling, this one inverse coupling faults and independent coupling faults, so that thereare two exclusive forms we can see and in an effort to make the matters more clear. So, firstwe will see the inverse coupling faults. So, right here simply you will have to see that, these arecell called i and these are cellphone known as j and these two things are becoming coupled arewith each and every other or within the obstacle. So, these mobile clearly this is mobile the coupling celland this is the coupled mobile. Now, you see the coupled mobilephone truely thefaulty cell. So, this diagram after this one that is average. So, this coupling cell actsthe coupled telephone and this man is getting fault, the place is the elemental concept. So, in a two invinversion coupling fault will take i and j then two cells i and j are, this that transitionform of zero to 1 or transition from 0 to a in cell j that you simply go from here or you go fromhere, that’s the telephone j with boost of undesirable trade whatever in mobilephone i that’s actuallythe inverse coupling fault.So, in inverse coupling fault what’s taking place,so there is a mobilephone referred to as n and there is a phone referred to as i. So, that is the coupling phone,as good because the coupled telephone. So, if this 0 to 1 and 1 to zero of adjusting going down in thecoupled phone j and it’s impacts the coupled cellphone, in some undesired way. So, that is faultycell and this is the fault causing telephone. So, what are the type what are the varieties of inversecoupling the, so 1 is the elevating and flay, that imply change from zero to 1 in mobile j thatis the zero to 1 in phone j compliment the content material of phone i.So, this will get compliments. So, if it’s a 0 now, it will be 1 and if it is 1 it willbe 0.So, any zero to 1 elevating right here, will comp complement this cellphone, will complement thiscontent here, in a similar way down photograph additionally falling 1 to zero sorry 1 to zero right here and againcall this undesired definitely. So, this known as the falling and this known as the rais raisinginverse coupling fault. Now, once more allow us to try to that you would be able to representwith, this one, this kind of diagram. So, this is usual now for that require we require,we know that we require i and j we require two of a known as for representing couplingfaults.So, with the stuck at faults, we just require one state s 1 or s 0, however in caseof a coupling fault, we all know that we require two cells for use. So, the notion here isthat. So, the. So, two cells are i and j. So, this is s 0 s 01 10 and 11 that is makings i and j. So, first bit corresponding to state i, secondbit akin to state j. So, for those who see that. So, 000110 and 11. So, if i’m state00. So, should you write zero at i, if you happen to write zero at j there can be a self load. So, if youwant to jot down 1 and j.So, you’ll go to state 01 from here, if you want to write 0at j. So, you’re going to come right here proper. So, from here, if you want to write 1 on this cellj i. So, it’s going to on this case it could be 10, this stands for i and this stand for j.So, from here if you want to write 1 at this cellphone j you write as 1 at j you go in a similar fashion,the entire stuff will also be explained. Now, we will see the inversing coupling faults.So, some examples we will see. So, we are going to see, this one is the inverse couplingfaults, this one the state diagram for a inverse coupling fault. So, you see these are thattwo i have marked, the correspond to with some variety of a inverse coupling fault, yousee what occurs, on this case this transition all different cells are natural that the 2 transitioncorresponding coupling faults.Let us see, what is they a, in this case you might be seeingthat write 1 in j. So, what occurs is 00 your are going to write1 in j. So, you will have to have 0 1 on account that, you are writing j to zero to 1 that is transition,however due to the fact that, of this inverse coupling faults this can be a up coupling fault, what happensthese values will get complimented. So, unnecessarily this may increasingly emerge as a 1 and will go by means of that,for those who with the average case it will have to have the transition from here to right here, seeing that,you might be writing 1 in j, but for the reason that, you are this up.So, is also price of x price of iis also changing type 0 to 1. So, as a result, we’re going no longer going to a0, but we aren’t going to a s eleven in a similar fashion, also there another fault over here, like forexample, the down coupling fault. So, in state j say you write as your zero and you wish to have towrite 1 over here. So, you will make a sorry that preliminary it was once a zero to 1 initiallyit was once a raising coupling fault and now this is the this the was once the autumn.So, with that they are about same certainly, we can have inside each the methods.So, thisis actually the place each displaying the elevating coupling fault most effective, down coupling faultscoupling fault may additionally showing in a identical approach. So, on this case you are writing samething as I advised you write zero to 1 in the phone j and unnecessarily this s also gets complemented.Similarly, here you’re writing a zero from mobile j to 1 in mobile j. So, that 0 to 1 and thiscontent of this man, in a sorry the content of telephone i can be getting modified from 1 to0.So, you should have you ever must have long past right here,if you wish to write a 1 you and j from 0 to 1 in power will have to gonna a on the grounds that, thecontent of i now not touching with the aid of this sorry, but that the with the aid of this 1 w 1 and j, but becauseof this coupling fault, the content material of mobile j is altering can be very praise fromis additionally we’ve this two extra transition, for this up come transition, is similarlywe can effectively draw for a down coupling fault also that you could draw, that’s I mean, if youwant to vary the mobilephone value from what do you call this value of from 1 to 0.Like for example, if I having a telephone from here, you want to this one, you want to changeit from 1 to 0 that price. So, it’s a falling. So, now, this worth of x 1 will get complemented.So, you are going to as an alternative of this transition, may have a transition from here to right here.So, youare altering this 1 to 0 that is you’re going type down in j, but together with the the valueof x that’s 1 will even get complemented. So, this transition will not be there in yourtransition parameter. So, this one that you can design a module for adown, I mean this fault that is in reality referred to as this, falling inversion coupling fault. For this why that you would be able to draw the state diagrams,for all this that is about, these are about up. So, you that you would be able to additionally draw it for the down.Now, the a further type of idempotent coupling faults that we are going to see.So, whatis the unique varieties I mean let us in this case, this was once a what you can what do yousay is that. So, inversion coupling fault actually is a praise 0 to 1 or a 1 to0. So, that used to be in regards to the inversion coupling fault, other style is the idempotent couplingfault. So, in main coupling faults are the differencewhat is the idea. So, in this case once more there are two cells i and cell j. So, this willactually couple this is coupling cells, this is the coupled cells, that is common and thisactually calls a fault FN. So, what is that, there are four types, rising if there may be raisingform here to here, then on this case the worth of x might be set to zero, anything may be thecell, what’s exchange in zero to 1 and mobile alterations the content of i to be 0, if the 0 to be 0fine, whether it is 1 it would be 0 with some thing like up up here, will truly make right here stuckat zero.In a similar fashion, it may possibly occur that raising 1. So,if is the elevating at n. So, it may possibly make this x that x i sorry stuck at 0. In a similar way, theother method if there’s a fall in this n j sorry the falling j falling j, will set the contentof i to be stuck at zero at i, similarly if there’s a fall in mobile j, the content of i is tobe 1 that’s stuck at one fault. So, in different case, we had a transition, if the lift right here.So, that is that used to be in regards to the inversion coupling fault.So, if there are, this is the this carry here there’s a fault, if there’s lift here thereis a fault.So, as and in case of and principal fairly one-of-a-kind, even if there may be raiseor a fall. So, lift or a fall. So, the x also i genuinely the fault, the place this fault,the coupled cellphone either will caught at zero or stuck at 1 with the aid of default, So, this somewhat differencein this. So, you are going to see this is the idempotent couplingfault example. So, in this case what now we have completed. So, in this case you might be altering fromi your altering kind 0 to 1 for this case and now it is really making the caught atfaults.So, on this faults you’re having, you’re changing j from 0 to 1 and price ofx will get changed to 1. So, it’s stuck at one type of other thing.But, now should you don’t forget the previous incidents that is the reverse coupling, what do youcall inversion coupling fault, so there was an yet another fault over here, so on this samething was taking place have been changing the value of i sorry j from 0 to 1. So, the worth ofx used to be getting flipped, the place sorry i was getting flipped from 1 to zero, but on this case it isnot a flipped, in this case the worth of zero i is really completely caught at 0. So,at any time when there may be exchange in i come 0 to 1. So, you don’t have, this transition in caseof a idempotent coupling fault compared to different case of inversion coupling fault.Now, third fault mannequin is a bridging fault,this also very well known fault model in in case of what that you may name, have been circuits alsoin combinational sequential circuits also you’ve got bridging faults. So, what’s a bridgingfault, is a equivalent stuff like what which you could name like this coupling fault and all, inthis case what occurs, there are two cells say i and j. So, the both the mobile will acteach different. So, that is the predominant, in the case of a coupling fault there was once a 1person was once dominating and the other man or woman used to be getting dominated.So, this j was affecting i form of a factor, but here both of them will affecting justbecause, there are getting briefed, the bridging fault there may be whatever known as AND bridgingand bridging some thing referred to as a OR bridging, in case of and bridging what is going to occur.So, if there’s a worth of zero and here, 1 right here, both of them are anded the reply is zero. So,we will be able to get 00 over in each the cells, these are called AND bridging fault.Now, if boththe cells like cells i and j, i and j is here. So, if I say 01 and bridging fault. So, thisguy can be getting changed to zero in this case i is affecting j, however using a AND bridgingfault. Now, OR bridging fault, let us say that in case of OR bridging fault zero and 0or 1 or if 1. So, in this case this 1 can be modified to 1 to cell will probably be 1. So, incase of OR bridging fault the worth of j is the dominating over i sort of a bridge. So,here each can dominate every other. So, there’s nothing known as one is the dominatorand different getting dominates. So, both can dominate sorry each of them can get affectby the other and in case of. So, if the worth is 00 the output is 00, in case of AND bridgingbecause, and of 0 and 0 is 0011.So, each of them type can be zero style of stuff due to the fact that,of what do that you may say and of 1 minus zero is 010 each 011 is both them are leading 1 and1 is that this one. So, on this case this one and this one, useof the AND bridging fault, they aren’t getting influence with the AND bridging fault, but thereis a record, what you could name these two instances and are littered with AND bridging fault. Likebecause, 0 is 1 and still 1 is in one other phone. So, both can be transformed to 00. So,there’s a difficulty, similarly it’s 10 or 11 the output it will be beneath case of andbridging fault additionally eleven is the output might be 11 sort of a stuff and 00 the output willbe 00 additionally, so no situation there is no changing in case of a fault in case of AND bridgingfault.So, in the event you taking a OR bridging fault, thisis 0 and nil or 0 is 0. So, this will probably be 00 zero and 1 it will be 1 and 1 in case of a or1 0s can be 1 and 1. So, that is the predicament and 1 and 1 or is 1. So, you get 1. So, incase of OR bridging fault, this was once will probably be getting this procedure will be no situation in0 if a phone as each the cells as 00. So, AND bridging, OR bridging no obstacle, but allthese three are having problems in case of OR bridging and if you’re using AND bridging.So, simplest this most effective under no circumstances obstacle in case of AND bridging only this will be have a problemin and bridging. So, this in regards to the AND bridging fault. Well as I advised you are the OR bridging faultslike 00 to 00 01 can be eleven. So, these are two gates, with are having some sort of aproblem in case of OR bridging fault correct.So, and in case that is what. So, in caseof AND bridging or OR bridging some thing you take. So, you’re going to have a problemmainly with this two blocks, here two matters considering, is a both and and or some thing youtake these two matters are definitely suitable. So, in case of OR bridging fault, so if iand j both of them can have an effect on each other, there may be nothing called dominating or beingdominated, but they will have to have extraordinary values to be problem, in case of a for likeboth of the 00 there is no main issue in both and them are 0 or zero is zero and nil and zero if bothof them 11.So, oaring them will get also 11, if both an ending of that is again 11.So, no trouble, but that is 0 and, however if it is 0 and if it is 1 then in case of ORbridging fault, this man will probably be dominating this one, in case of OR bridging fault andif AND bridging fault then this man might be dominating this one.So, this the case, so two cells can have special worth to be getting have an impact on by means of abridging fault. Subsequent is some thing called which may be very importantin case of, what do which you can call this memory trying out as again emphasizing is referred to as theneighbourhood, pattern sensitive fault, that could be very principal, that is in case of memoryyou have this varieties of cells, kinds of thing and this is the mobilephone, so round that you just willhave, one more last numbers of mobilephone cells.So, all this fail to mighty. So, the itis been suffering from neighbour. So, this style of fault problems you can see,if now not to be had or if now not they or manner should not truely studied or required, in caseof sequential and combinational circuits on the grounds that, they had been I there may be nothing no symmetricis there, neighbours additionally affect, but this affect is less, but have to less examine to memorycell when you consider that, in reminiscence having access to may be very so much compact, positioned were close each otherthat is absolutely the concern over right here. This is the reason, we can say that the differentkind of reminiscence fault in some is truely known as, reminiscence one of the vital and different kindof fault modelling within the vey compact common sense gates, such that the neighbour is that this one,that that is what I instructed you. So, once in me very near to each other. So, you shouldbe here, for example, an with unique instance there then will come into that. So, basicallythe proposal that, this is the case it is the surrounded through things which could be very close andcompressed in nature.So, they’re mighty. So, this is the reason the principal for incase of reminiscence and fairly special from circuit I imply they are the common sense circuit. So, that there two types I imply neighbourhoodthat are been regarded to see what they’re form one neighbourhood. So, you mark thiscell as 0123 and 4. So, these guys are affecting this, so that is one factor we count on that,diagonal elements are bit farer faraway from this cell. So, they don’t seem to be having that kindof mobile since, you see, in the event you generalise the a neighbouring idea, you could say thatthis is one neighbourhood, that you may say this in one an extra neighbourhood, extra an otherkind of neighbourhood. So, they neighbourhood can set even be thisway.So, the special tangents of, what you name different forms of like for instance,coupling you stated that 2 cells can couple, 3 cells can couple, four cells can couple, sofor, but in case of the neighbourhood to define a neighbourhood is a very, very exponentialproblem in bodily sort of main issue. Neighbourhood may also be something, that you would be able to also additionally consideras this guy, this man, this guy and this guy as well, which might be diagnose each other fora very specified case sort of circuits. Also also you can say that, these matters allthese matters can be considered as a neighbourhood, so and also which you could say that, these thingsare all considered as neighbour this one, this one, this one and this one are consideras neighbour right here, we are not due to the fact that the diagonal elements will not be considered.So, the proposal is that neighbourhood will also be continually in a any kind of fashion and thatis truly going to kill you.So, you cannot have, any any style of neighbourhood definedand is just not surely recovered considering, of the exponential nature the trouble.So, what you do is that, we outline in a checking out and band statically and many different matterthey found out that, there are two type of neighbourhood, which where is sufficient todo this trying out and which is able to reasonably, decreasing complexity as well as it may be reasonablywith an good protection and self assurance, so this one type of style one neighbourhood, in whichwe have this mobile. So, these matters will not be diagnosed cells aren’t involved in this and0 1 and 2 is this mobile which is an influence, 3 and four are the neighbourhood cells is anothertype of neighbourhood. More complicated. So, it’s in addition they considerdiagonal elements, may will like this one, this one and likewise to be worried in thiscoupling on the grounds that, they are all nearby also they they bit extra complicated, however takes more,I mean extra quantity of cells in idea ration making this fault modelling results.So, hereis 0, this is 123, this one is four is the affected 15678. So, this can be a more tricky couplingfault sorry neighbourhood fault model, however you could additionally bear in mind the 0.33 subject fourthin a making it horrible complex and it will develop because. So, in checking out, we consideronly these kind of this one. So, kind 1 is, however for variety 2, I mean we considerbit extra intricate stuff that allows you to no longer speak about.You are going to believe that you ought to anticipate also8 1 2 three four 5 6 7 eight, 8 different variety of I imply 8 one-of-a-kind neighbourhood cells need to recollect. While in case of 1 you have got to consider0 1 2 3 most effective sorry 1 2 3 4 simplest four cells which is within the peripheral. So, now, we will see the exclusive form oftwo or three one of a kind forms of faults units, on this one in case of neighbourhood patternsensitive coupling faults. So, one is the active one. So, what is a active one. So,energetic one says that. So, v 0, v 1, v three, v 4 these are the 4 cells, which might be actuallyperipheral of this one zero 1 three four and this two mobilephone is a absolutely been affected. So, thatis why we write 01234 there all these cells which might be very neighborhood this one, at these areyou can say that, 013 and 4 and that is your affected section, this one correct and we can thisvalue of some reduce something like this.So, now that is one type of a fault. So, whatis this one lively energetic neural touchy section, energetic method there will have to be some activityin this four cells, where this is this one. So, it’s due to the fact firstly the valueof f e equals to 1 for worth equal to 1, this price equal to 1, initially.Now, you say that, the entire other values was once 0000 the place the 4 values, this this guy,this man, this man, had been values are having sorry sorry sorry this value had been having 1,firstly it was once 0110, at the start this configuration was nothing, but originally it used to be somethinglike this, it used to be having the value of 0 was having the worth zero, 1 was very thing thatof 1, this had been having the worth of 0, this 1 was having worth of 0, f e was once having thevalue of 1. Now, we says that, what’s default is a slightthis is a drop on this one. So, this one alterations to zero, so for those who do this it sayes that thiscell additionally get affected and it is transformed using now, why is it a type of thing. So,this matters.So, near about everything one in all this zero. So, all of them collectively, pushit down to 0, but in the beginning it was once not zero given that, this mobile was additionally 1 and that used to be actuallyhad to be to 1. So, now this gate to be a 0 for some motive.So, this through being periphery of all different 0s get change to zero. So, it is I mean 0. So, becauseof this recreation from 1 to zero in this time period this one is example of a energetic in no way rootfaults that is considering the fact that, exercise here or right here there additionally try to pull this man to 1 and zero,so that is one instance of this one. So, this referred to as lively due to the fact, lively meansin some alterations in any one of this neighbourhood change from 0 to 1 1 to 0 there surely happeningat equal. This one is the lively, this some thing calledpassive, is something referred to as passive. Now, what is referred to as a passive, we call this isas a passive when you consider that, in this case we will not have many alterations within the in no way roots cellsbecause, of some passive nature handiest good be zero or 1 some natures, some sample nature,we even have felt this internal components we will be able to see. So, on this case, we are saying that v zero, v1, v 3, v 4.So, v 1 this is v three v four. So, right here some values, we call this value of thiscell beneath that is true and these are characterize the values of the neighbouring cells and fe represents the fault finish cellphone. So, there three kinds this is the exampleis higher, it says that because of some sample of over here. So, these are these are yourcells. So, this is 1, sorry 01234 this is f e. So, this is a 101234 considering that, of somevalue over here, like that you would be able to say that small values like 111 and now 1 some thing like this,you can’t exchange these values from zero to 1 or also sorry we will say we are able to say all thesethings are 0 let us anticipate let us expect the entire values are zero over right here.So, now, it says that v cut, this v cut method this little mobile that is under scan, we wantto read from zero to 1, but all other peripheries are 0, all other 0 assume 1 this is 1, value0, worth 1, worth 3, price 4, value 0, 13 four style of zero 134 all these are zero. Now, becauseof this everything is 0 nearby, so now it is going to not enable the principal section that is cellnumber 2 or f e 2 elevate of zero to 1.So, it says that, we wish to raise the values ofthis phone under experiment from 0 to 1, preliminary value of cellphone will count on, however these now not alongthis is a one type of a fault. So, in a similar fashion it says that, this can be onekind of all may also be like say for illustration all of the these if all these things at the moment are 1111this can be 1 now, you want to assert that, you need to make this one from 1 to 0 thatis we want make it fault, however because all of the peripherals are 1, you’ll no longer beable to design. So, this a further variety of a neighbourhood pattern touchy for meanspassive in nature, the all these as 0, this all these are ones. So, passive we are tryingto hold the values of the opposite neighbouring cell, which is being affected and this isa lively is a what used to be the article.Identical thing was there, however do they used tosome kind of endeavor in this scalar, this scalar, this scalar, this which is to be changingthe values. So, there are too slight change, a further thing is that I imply in view that, of somepattern touchy defaults, I means when you consider that, of some passive faults, what you had been doing,you were virtually unnecessarily the cellphone can not be modified concerning of context.Like on this case, this some, this phone is there some values you place like 0000 or ifyou put 11 some values had been there, but now this cell end up constant for some were are trying tochange this mobilephone to 0 to 1 1 to 0 that you’re not avail to try this, this cell becomesfixed at the values. So, there are three types of neighbourhood pattern, telephone passive patternneighbour pattern section. So, why they are known as passive considering that, on this case some valuesare there in the cell quantity 013 and four and there are affecting the mobilephone and scan whichis in the centre.And why this is called lively given that, heresome patterns are there are some actives either are here, here and right here braces and the activitieschange altering some fault over it, for this reason, that is one is called the lively in natureand different the passive in nature and the very essential in case of memory trying out because,memory structure is anything like that, the cells are very so much coupled and close eachother. So, what happen, needs matches in different in aneighbourhood fashion this, is like take an illustration that, if a would man or woman is in is inamongst friendship of a couple of unhealthy friends, the character entrance try to will try to becomebad, in wrong way in a similar fashion like if a foul person is amongst, all other men and women which whichwe are just right I imply, if a character is bad, however he stays with just right people and he tends tohappens that he also come to be a excellent person.So, there is a neighbourhood are is havinga very so much have an impact on from the cells. So, that’s one an additional we have now visible. So, there is final section is that specific addressdecoder faults, which is referred to as the address decoders are nothing, however there an additional typeof combinational circuit decoder, they don’t scan there in a common method like a combinationalcircuits given that, or concept is that, if you don’t want on account that, it is coupled to a memory.So, it’s job is handiest to entry some reminiscence places and supply the worth by the, whatdo which you could call cells amplifier and the motive force cells.So, that there are genuinely two of the elements of the where I instructed you the analog elements,which is the feel amplifier, which experience the values of the circuit or something somethingwhich drives the values, to jot down the memory phone.So, these components additionally won’t explicitlyand in a similar fashion, decoders usually are not else explicitly. So, what is going to do is that in view that, the ideaof the reminiscence decoder is that, you choose some cellphone you write it and you retrieve itback. So, this decoder should occur to select thecell property that is what the notion, no mobile is accessed for a detailed access I way.So, from the context of memory testing, four types of faults that you would be able to considering that addressdecoding, with the designated tackle, more than one cells are at the same time accessed which shouldnot be feasible it will have to no longer be the case, exact cellphone will have to be accessed with amultiplexed this should now not be feasible that’s say that is the these are cellphone, these arecell sort of a thing.So, it should be accessed with just one designated handle that’s theproper tackle. So, what’s the inspiration, with a detailed celladdress must be, certain cellphone can be accessed with more than one handle that’s shouldnot be viable that’s say, it’s cell numbers 5, you will have to be in a position to entry simplest withcell quantity, deal with 5 it should now not be with 3215. So, with all 3215 which will have to be ableto access this should no longer be viable. Secondly, with a special handle multiplesshould not be at the same time accessed the straight, you wish to have to claim entry 5 says thisshould be access, simultaneously your access on this phase and for one of the crucial cellularaccessing this part, that will have to additionally not be there. And it must no longer be there somethinglike, no handle for a detailed cell, like for example, there’s a telephone, this cannotbe accessed any reminiscence any reminiscence tackle, say this is mobile is 7.So, through 7 you must be in a position to access this, you should not be the case that you’re tryingto put, while you should no longer capable to access is they ever, you provide 7 you entry some othercell and you can not access this cellphone.So, that should they must now not be in case, nocell access for precise deal with. So, here one of the crucial circumstances, which might be active meansaddress decoder faults, however most commonly the proposal is that, we won’t go for testing ofthis things on this explicitly method. Then what we will do, we can entry these cellssequential, which can be competent to the entire cells sequential write proper values and skim propervalues, then you can be very much definite that none of those faults are there because, youshould be ready because, the idea is that, in a single time that you may access just one mobilephone due to the fact,if you’re having access to more than one cells, then whatever you are writing you will get someother form of output, what you expect are output now not be there, use some some cellhere is been accept and other phone is being accept with bodily deal with let not be feasible.So, I mean also these factor now not be feasible with the everything is correct, with the singleaddress, multiple mobilephone cannot be accessed, like with the designated access with multiplethat can be now not be there since, you might be soliciting for whatever, you are getting something;that means, what all attempt to do is for all cells; that implies, all cells are accessed,all cells are correctly accessed by using detailed addresses and no, I approach no addresses areaccessing less than ones.So, for those who less entry all of the cells, meanone by means of one and determine the whole thing is appropriate, than all this things should be carried out in a properway. So, now. So, that was once concerning the memory faults.So, in the next lecture what you are going to see, we are going on the grounds that, you see verysimple right, so the proposal is that you simply need to access some memory region, you will have towrite 0, you must read zero and, so forth. So, that’s the foremost notion, so you do not propagatethe fault worth to the output here, you did not set faults despite the fact that things are usually not requiredthat is very easy due to the fact that, the memory must be ready to keep a 0 and or 1 and you shouldbe in a position to retrieve by means of required in a by way of right addressing mechanism.So, that is what we’re going to do, you will promote one after the other write a zero, read a0, write a 1, learn a 1, this the thing for those who do sequentially for all these cells, thenyour job is done.So, here you don’t require a common ATPJ algorithm, de algorithm propagatingthe price of the outputs experience in non standard, entry these cells write a zero, read a 0, writea 1 data 1 and your going to been carried out. So, that is what referred to as the checking out of memorymodels. So, in the subsequent lecture, we are going to see how we will go a model, this is thevery famous trying out of marks test. So, we will have to be seeing in the next lecture.Thanks..